• Frontal Impact

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Frontal impact test

Frontal impact player
Frontal impact test is a method of test that measures and assesses the impact in head and chest from the sensor installed to the dummy after inducing frontal impact of test vehicle to the fixed concrete wall with dummy in driver seat and frontal passenger seat and with the speed of 56km/h (36% increase in energy) that is 15% faster than the test speed (48km/h) on the law.
The test is representation of the same situation where car to car frontal impact is occurred with the same type of vehicle and with the speed of 56km/hour from the opposite direction.

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  • Reference : Article 102 of Vehicle Safety Regulation
  • In case of passenger car, impact of head, chest, thigh, etc for dummy in the driver seat and frontal passenger seat during the frontal impact to the fixed wall with speed of 48.3km/h should not exceed following numbers.
  • - Head Injury Criterion (HIC):1,000  - Chest Acceleration:60gThigh  - Compression Load:1,020kgf
  • * HIC : Head Injury Criteria / * g : gravity

Method for Frontal Impact Test

  • Frontal impact to fixed concrete wall with speed of 56km/h that is 8km faster than the test speed of 48km/h by the law.
  • Equipment of dummy for frontal impact in driver seat and frontal passenger seat
  • Installation of sensor to measure the impact in head, chest, etc of dummy
  • Dummy for Frontal Impact: It is a male dummy called Hybrid ¥² with height of 178cm and weight of 75kgf developed in USA.
  • As it is to collide head-on onto the auto concrete fixed wall with the speed of 56km per hour which is 8km per hour faster than 48km per hour of the legal test speed (35% increase with conversion to the energy), this revive the same situation that it collides head-on with the same type of vehicle coming with the speed of 56km per hour from the clock-wise direction.

  • Method for Frontal Impact Test

Preparation for Frontal Impact Test

  • Lab on head, neck, chest, knee, etc of dummy for frontal impact
Installation of sensor to measure the impact on head, chest, etc
Installation of dummy for frontal impact to test vehicle

Method to Read Result of Frontal Impact Test

1. Injury Scale
  • Calculates the possibility (%) of severe injury (AIS 4) by measuring the impact on head and chest of the passenger in driver seat and frontal passenger seat.
    ※ ※ Severe Injury refers to the Level 4 in Abbreviated Injury Scale of USA. Namely, it refers to the injury scale of over 6~24 hours of unconsciousness, blood blister or fracture in 3 or more ribs on both sides and damage in chest.

  • Pcomb is divided into 5 scales based on the result of measurement and highest scale and lowest scale is indicated with 5 starts and 1 star respectively.
Injury Level Possibility of Severe Injury (Pcomb)
★★★★★ Pcomb under 10%
★★★★ Pcomb over 11% under 20%
★★★ Pcomb over 21% under 35%
★★ Pcomb over 36% under 45%
Pcomb over 46%
  • ※ Calculation of Possibility of Severe Injury (Pcomb)
  • ① Equipment of 50% male dummy in driver seat and frontal passenger seat
  • ② Calculate Pcomb from the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and Chest Acceleration (Chest g's) and divided it into
         5 Scales
  • ⊙ Calculation of Pcomb over Injury Level 4
         - Possibility for Head Injury Phead = {1+exp[5.02-0.00351¡ × HIC]}-1
         - Possibility for Chest Injury Pchest = {1+exp[5.55-0.0693 ¡ × Chest G]}-1
  • ⊙ Possibility of Injury Considering the Combination Effect of Head and Chest Injury
         - Possibility of Combination Injury Pcomb = Phead + Pchest ­ Phead ¡× Pchest
  • Indication of Injury Value in Each Body Part with 4 colors
  • Indication of Injury Value in Each Body Part with 4 colors, Green color Good, Yellow color Acceptable, Orange color Marginal, red color Poor
Protection of Each Body Part (Frontal Impact to Fixed Wall with Speed of 56km/h)
Section Passenger
Protection
Good Acceptable Marginal Poor
Color Green Yellow Orange Red
Head Injury
Criterion
under 500 501~1,000 1,001~1,500 over 1,500
Chest
Acceleration (g)
under 45 46~60 61~75 over76
Thigh Compression
Load (kgf)
under 500 501~1,020 1,021~1,500 over1,500
Abbreviated Injury Scale: AIS
Injury Level Head Chest Mortality Rate(%)
1 (Minor) Headache or Dizziness Fracture of 1 Rib 0.0
2 (Moderate) Unconsciousness (less than 1 hour) 2~3 linear rib fractures, chest fractures 0.1~0.4
3 (Serious) 2~3 linear rib fractures, chest fractures Linear fractures, contusion of heart, 2~3 rib fractures (Existence of Blood or Pneumothorax) 0.8~2.1
4 (Severe) Unconsciousness(6~24 hours) Depressed fracture, 3 or more rib fractures on both sides, damage in chest 7.9~10.6
5 (Critical) Unconsciousness(over 24 hours) Large blood blisters, severe laceration of aorta 53.1~58.4
6 (Maximum Injury) - - No chance of survival
Note) Date of Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM), USA (1990)

2. Door-Opening at the Moment of Impact
  • Check the door-opening at the moment of impact since passenger may spring out to the outside when door opens at the moment of impact.
  • No door-opening at the moment of impactNo door-opening at the moment of impact

3. Easiness in Door-Opening after Impact
  • Measure the amount of strength consumed in manual door-opening from the outside after impact since passenger may easily be rescued from the outside or come outside by himself when door opens easily after impact.
  • Manual door-opening after impactNo manual door-opening after impact

4. Gas Leakage after Impact
  • Check the gas leakage after impact since fire may start with the engine heat when there is gas leakage after impact
  •  No gas leakageGas leakage